According to Wikipedia, the Queen's English refers not just to pronunciation, but also "matters such as grammar, vocabulary and style".
The term has also been referenced numerous times on ELU. Of the 13 pages of search hits, though, I found just two questions of relevance to my question. The first asks about a style guide that the Queen might use, and the second is more tangential, asking about the link between Appalachian and Elizabethan vs contemporary English.
As defined by Oxforddictionaries.com:
The English language as written and spoken correctly by educated people in Britain
the link is clearly with educated British people in general, not the Queen in particular. Although this might be brushed off as synecdoche, there seems (to me, at least) to be a more personal association with the language of the Queen in her own right.
My question here is whether this impression is correct. Does the Queen's English refer to English as spoken by the Queen of England and, if so, was this personal link present between past monarchs and the polished English of their time?