I'm having a hard time figuring out whether or not to use a comma in the type of situation shown in the examples below:
- Jane was concerned that running by herself she might get mugged.
- Jane was concerned that running by herself, she might get mugged.
- Jane was concerned that, running by herself, she might get mugged.
- We knew unless we changed our attitude we were bound to fail.
- We knew unless we changed our attitude, we were bound to fail.
- We knew, unless we changed our attitude, we were bound to fail.
In the above examples, is 1, 2, or 3 right?
Normally, if "running by herself" and "unless we changed our attitude" started a sentence, they would be separated from the main clause for being a participle and a subordinate clause, respectively. However, I'm having a hard time finding an answer regarding comma usage when these come later in the sentence. Logically, I think the answer should be 3, but very often and in normally very grammatical sources, I see it written like either 1 or 2. Also, I can especially see how 2 might be accurate because the the comma separation looks as if it divides the verb in the main clause from its subject, and particularly in the latter, the information provided isn't parenthetical but necessary to the operation of the sentence.
Sorry for the long spiel, but I felt I needed to describe the situation sufficiently because I don't have a name for it. If I had a name for it, maybe I could have found the answer.
Anyway, if you could possibly either give a rationale or a source that backs up your answer, that would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!