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What do you call a person who has the ability to question and is curious about right things? As in someone who points out loopholes in an argument or the like.

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    Answer is: a child. – Gras Double Jan 3 '16 at 4:28
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perspicacious definiton:

Having a ready insight into and understanding of things.

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    +1. But if you enter 'perspicacious' synonyms in Google, you will get a list of 21 other words which seem equally apt in the circumstances. – WS2 Jan 3 '16 at 0:53
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A person to whom seeking out cavils in other people's statements and arguments is a source of rich joy is called:

  • a pedant: a person who overemphasizes rules or minor details
  • a pharisee: a sanctimonious, self-righteous, or hypocritical person

A person who questions other people's arguments and insists on finding his or her own answer can be called:

  • an explorer: a person who investigates unknown regions, not necessarily geographical

  • a pioneer: one who is first or among the earliest in any field of inquiry, enterprise, or progress

  • a pathfinder: a person who finds or makes a path, way, route, etc.

  • a trailblazer: a pioneer in any field of endeavor

All definitions are from The Comprehensive Online Dictionary

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I believe you might be describing a "Skeptic" or "critical thinker"

If you are looking for an adjective, these might work:

Skeptical

Critical

Inquisitive

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