In writing there are often little inline snippets to add to the meaning of the sentence - for example:

There are many problems here, e.g. too fat; too stupid; smells bad.

The elephant is a pachyderm, i.e., a large animal with thick skin and nails on feet resembling hooves

I like coffee (I am addicted).

"I swear I never seen any one so prity [sic] as Miss Daisy!"

The bold part of the examples are what I am interested in. I may not have used these all correctly, but what I'm interested in is whether or not there is a general name for these type of linguistic enhancements? Or are they all specific to themselves and thus do not necessarily belong in one set?

Note: I don't know that the tags I used for this question are necessarily the best. Feel free to edit them if you can think of better ones.

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    "e.g." is just standing in for "for example", and "i.e." is just standing in for "that is". These constructions are different from the parenthetical "(I am addicted)". "sic" is the only one that is specific to writing. – Era Dec 4 '15 at 20:07
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    You could argue that all of these bolded words and phrases are parentheticals, although the term normally refers to words or phrases set off from the rest of the sentence in which they appear by parentheses, brackets, or dashes. The complication is that you can use commas to set of some such phrases, just as if they were parentheses, brackets, or dashes, as in "I wrote to Mr. Spradley, a man whose taste in wine is known to be exquisite, for advice about my paper clip collection." – Sven Yargs Dec 4 '15 at 20:12
  • @Era But "e.g." is parenthetical though. – Araucaria Dec 4 '15 at 20:33
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    When an actor is not speaking directly to the audience but making a comment, it is an "aside," and, as a stage direction, be marked [aside] – Hugh Dec 4 '15 at 20:44
  • The only example that deserves to be called "markup" is [sic]. – TRomano Dec 4 '15 at 20:53

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