Our English teacher wants us to paraphrase some sentences from an article (published in 2000, written by Froning) used as evidences in our critical paragraphs, and here is a model answer for me to imitate.

This is the original sentence:" Free trade policies have created a level of competition..."

This is the model answer:" According to Froning (2000, para. 1), free trade has resulted in increased competition..."

I want to know why the model answer is using the present perfect tense. Because the published time of this article is 2000, we don't know anything about free trade after 2000 until now. In my opinion, if we use the present perfect tense in this sentence, we would mean free trade still has the same influence (of resulting in increased competition) until today. But actually we don't know about it. So I think if we use the present perfect tense in this sentence, it's not accurate enough.

So I think it would've been more appropriate if the model answer had been:" According to Froning (2000, para. 1), free trade had resulted in increased competition..."

I asked my teacher about this question, but as she was so busy and I didn't organize my question well, she just said if something has the possibility to influence today, even though I cannot make sure, I still can use the present perfect.

Is my teacher right? Which tense should I use in this paraphrased sentence?

Thank you very much!!!

  • Check out the timeline chart in Robusto's answer here: english.stackexchange.com/questions/21846/… You'll find that the present perfect covers past time up to the present and doesn't carry implications for the future. Past perfect ("had resulted") talks about past time before a fixed point in the past.
    – deadrat
    Nov 26, 2015 at 8:11

1 Answer 1


The correct form would be as follows: "According to Froning (2000, para. 1), free trade results in increased competition...." Froning (as cited) has nothing to say about the present or future. It is not your job to determine the truth of his statement, only to paraphrase his findings as of the date they were published. I personally know English teachers (and authors) who regularly misuse the English language. That's why we have editors.

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