1) "Even in those days he played golf every wednesday.".., in this sentence there are two adverbial markers(in those days and every wednesday) so which marker is considered as reference time and situation time? And why?

  • 1
    The "narrative reference time" of the sentence in isolation is those days, but in context it could be some later time (where just this one sentence reflects his (later) thoughts about something he used to do earlier). I don't know what "situation time" means in a grammatical context. Commented Nov 23, 2015 at 14:09
  • There's nothing wrong with having two markers as long as they don't disagree. Is there any need to single out one marker to call the "reference time marker"? Commented Nov 23, 2015 at 15:15
  • Same examples but different focus:non-progressive, habitual actions
    – Mari-Lou A
    Commented Mar 26, 2016 at 10:37

1 Answer 1


I would say that even in those days is a temporal location adjunct and every Wednesday is a frequency adjunct. In the former, those days is being used anaphorically, i.e. it refers to some contextually given period in past time, while the latter quantifies the situation by marking it as a multiple situation, in this case every Wednesday.

  • The interpretation of the non-progressive depends on the kind of situation involved. Normally it is perfective with occurrences i.e. dynamic situations, but imperfective with states, whether ordinary or serial. Here my question is what are ordinary and serial states, could you answer with some relevant examples?
    – ram
    Commented Nov 24, 2015 at 2:10
  • You raised that secondary topic in another question a short while ago, which I believe is being dealt with there. I answered the question that you asked here.
    – BillJ
    Commented Nov 24, 2015 at 8:29

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