Studying vocabularies, I am very confused about the meaning of those words. In the view of a learner, those seem very similar to me, but I cannot find the relation of them. Is there any relationship between those words, or they have independent meanings?
POSE = TO PUT, from Old French (actually contemporary french "poser" is still valid).
when posing you are in a position that you have put yourself into. when exposing you are placing something for public view. when imposing you are forcibly placing something/some idea. when composing you are placing various words/sounds together.
According to THE Merriam Webster dictionary:
"Origin of POSE Middle English, from Anglo-French poser, from Vulgar Latin *pausare, from Late Latin, to stop, rest, pause, from Latin pausa pause First Known Use: 14th century
Origin of EXPOSE Middle English, from Anglo-French exposer, from Latin exponere to set forth, explain (perfect indicative exposui), from ex- + ponere to put, place — more at position First Known Use: 15th century
Origin of IMPOSE Middle French imposer, from Latin imponere, literally, to put upon (perfect indicative imposui), from in- + ponere to put — more at position First Known Use: 1581
Origin of COMPOSE Middle English, from Anglo-French composer, from Latin componere (perfect indicative composui) — more at compound First Known Use: 15th century"