if I have the sentence "A killing B is called murder." is "A killing B" a regular participle clause or is that impossible because it has a subject?
In other words: Can a participle clause have a subject (- noun phrase)?
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Yes, it can, is the short answer.
Most non-finite clauses are subjectless, but there are some that do have subjects, including participial clauses:
She insisted on [me/my being present at the birth].
He sought advice from Ed, [he/him being the most knowledgeable of the group].
And your example, as well as others like it, does too:
[A killing B] is called murder.
Kim hated [him playing golf every day].
[His old car being written off], he was forced to buy a new one.