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if I have the sentence "A killing B is called murder." is "A killing B" a regular participle clause or is that impossible because it has a subject?

In other words: Can a participle clause have a subject (- noun phrase)?

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Yes, it can, is the short answer.

Most non-finite clauses are subjectless, but there are some that do have subjects, including participial clauses:

She insisted on [me/my being present at the birth].

He sought advice from Ed, [he/him being the most knowledgeable of the group].

And your example, as well as others like it, does too:

[A killing B] is called murder.

Kim hated [him playing golf every day].

[His old car being written off], he was forced to buy a new one.

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