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Can someone please explain the difference between 'has already' and 'had already'?

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Minnow has directed you to an excellent answer with an excellent diagram that illustrates what portions of the timeline the various English verb forms cover. There you'll find that the auxiliary has/have signals present perfect (completed action from an indeterminate time in the past all the way up to just about now), and the auxiliary had signals past perfect (completed action from an indeterminate time in the past prior to a fixed time in the past). Note how the tense of the verb affects the meaning of already.

Consider the present perfect with the verb "to leave": has already left:

A: Will you see Katy tonight?
B: No, she has already left town.

Katy left at some time in the past, not specified. Already means that she departed up to this time, i.e., her departure preceded the present.

Now consider the past perfect: had already left:

A: Will you see Karty tonight?
B: No, she had already left before I got here.

Katy left at some time the past and her departure preceded a fixed past time, namely my arrival. Here already means that she departed up to that time, i.e., her departure preceded the fixed time in the past at which I arrived.

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