The Soviet armies to the east, including their dominance by force of Eastern Europe, not only fostered cooperation through NATO but U.S. aid also helped foster market reform in Western Europe. U.S. aid often depended on market reform;

Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History, by Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast

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    Located in those parts of the world that were east of NATO's position in Western Europe. There, "to" could be paraphrased "in" but "to" adds the nuance of pointing to the remote location relative to an express or implied reference location.
    – TimR
    Nov 15, 2015 at 16:50
  • When I read this "including their dominance by force of Eastern Europe" seems entirely redundant. What's an army for if not dominating by force? Nov 15, 2015 at 17:49
  • The sentence at the beginning of the same paragraph is even worse: "Violent international competition also tempers policymaking in open access orders, especially during periods of intense competition." Surprisingly (to me) this comes from a book published by Cambridge University Press, albeit by three U.S. professors.
    – Sven Yargs
    Nov 15, 2015 at 18:29
  • I didn't get your point about the other sentence. Could you explain more?
    – behnamzo
    Nov 15, 2015 at 18:34
  • @CandiedOrange armies can dominate through mere presence.
    – Misneac
    Nov 15, 2015 at 19:06

1 Answer 1


"Soviet armies to the east (of Western and Central Europe)" seems like a logical inference based on the rest of the sentence, but the whole sentence is awfully gawky in my opinion. Obviously, unless things went badly wrong, ALL Soviet armies should have been to the east of Western Europe anyway. To distinguish the Soviet armies of the Soviet east from the Soviet armies of the European east the authors should have said something like "the armies of western Russia" or "Soviet armies in western Russia".

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