One definition of forget is to inadvertently leave behind (OED). Notice inadvertently.
And yes you can indicate where using a prepositional phrase, whether it's at home, on the bus, or anywhere else. Apparently the prepositional phrase refers to the location of the forgotten object (as opposed to where the person was when they forgot the object).
For an early usage (1611) see the King James Bible
When thou cuttest down thine harvest in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go again to fetch it: (Deuteronomy 24:19).
Using modern spelling it's
...have forgot a sheaf in the field, you shall not go again to fetch it.
It's clear the shief was forgotten (left behind) in the field because the verse says don't go back and get (fetch) it.
One example sentence from the Oxford dictionary online is interesting:
She almost forgot to bring her cell phone at the top of the kitchen counter but luckily she remembered it.
To me this sounds a little disconcerting because the phone (1) was not actually forgotten, and (2) the prepositional phrase gives such an exact location of where the the "almost-forgotten phone" was–but no longer is!