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"How do you like the colors on this shirt?"

"Do you like the colors on this shirt?"

Are they similar? Are both syntaxes gramatically correct? If yes, why do both of them exist then?

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  1. "Do you like the colors on this shirt?"

  2. "How do you like the colors on this shirt?"

They are both correct. The difference is that the first is a closed question and the second is an open question.

"Do you like X?" calls for a Yes or No answer.

You cannot answer Yes or No to question 2. You can say "I like them" or you can give an opinion.

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"Do you like the colors on this shirt?" Asks whether or not the colors on this shirt are liked.

"How do you like the colors on this shirt?" Asks in what way the colors on this shirt are liked. This question also assumes the answer to the other question is 'Yes.'

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You can say "How do you like x?" especially when you want to know the opinion of a person regarding the thing you have given as a present or something you have served such as a glass of tea or a cup of coffee to them:

How do you like the coffee?

You can ask that question while they are drinking the coffee. After they have finished drinking the coffee you ask:

How did you like the coffee?

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