I'm looking for a word which encapsulates the above concept. An example: when someone knows how to use their phone, but doesn't understand how to take it apart, put it together, etc.
There is a relevant term, but it refers to the object being used, not to the user. In your example, the person is using their phone as a black box. As Wikipedia says,
a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs [...], without any knowledge of its internal workings.
In the academia we term what you are asking for as Recipe knowledge. Vennix, J. (2019) defines recipe knowledge as "knowledge about fairly routine issues that we use every day in our (social) discourse." Moreover, Vennix gives an example of making a phone call without being an expert in how telecommunication works.