I was wondering if this question is correct or not? and if not, why not?
Do you know if he didn't go to the party?
It sounds kind of strange. I feel
'Do you know if he went to the party?'
is better... but i'm not sure why.
Can anyone help me?
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Do you know if he didn't go to the party? can be rephrased to:
Do you know if he was absent from/absented himself from the party?
It might be used when everybody around you thinks he was present at the party, but you are the only one who is not sure and you want to ask someone what you want to know.
I don't think it is incorrect, but at the same, you don't have to ask that way for a simple question of whether he was present at the party.
I would say it might be quite unusual to ask that way.
It is correct, for “I know that he didn’t go to the party”.
WS2’s comment explains neatly why it is strange, but also why such a question might be constructed.