I am curious as to whether English had any plural articles like in French with "les" and "des".
Depending on your point of view, you could say that it has one now: the definite article "the" can be used with plural nouns, although the same form is used with singular nouns.
But if you don't accept that as a real example, you can go back to Old English, where the definite article had not only a different form for the plural, but different forms for three genders and four or five cases. (These forms were not just used as articles in Old English, but also as demonstrative adjectives and pronouns; some of the forms are no longer used as articles but survive as modern English demonstrative adjectives or pronouns. Some of the history of this development is given at the end of the following page: Middle English Morphology.)
The situation with the indefinite article is different; it seems there never was a plural form. The reason why is covered in this question: Why is there no plural indefinite article?