For example, would the sentence "I hunger for success" differ from "I thirst for success"? Can hunger and thirst be used interchangeably when expressing desire, or is one more appropriate than the other and in what context?
As they are, I don't think one is more appropriate than the other. You'd have to determine that based on the context in which they are used. I would say that thirst invokes a sharper and more dire sense of desire and hunger a more forceful and consuming one. However, these would need to take cues from surrounding structure to have a significantly altered impact from just "I desired success."