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As far as what I've learned, this is how you use the phrase "as a result". e.g. He was late, as a result, he didn't catch the bus. = He was late***,*** he didn't catch the bus as a result.

I would like to know whether you need "and" as a conjunction with phrases like this.

---He was late, and as a result, he didn't catch the bus. (correct?) ---He was late***, and*** he didn't catch the bus as a result. (correct?) ---He was late. He didn't catch the bus as a result. (correct?)

How do I know whether I need conjunctions when dealing with phrases like this?

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2 Answers 2

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You need to use "and" if you're yoking two clauses each of which can stand independently.

He was late.

That is a short but perfectly complete sentence.

As a result, he didn't catch the bus.

Although it refers back to a prior statement, that is also an independent sentence.

Your choices when writing are to use "and" between them, or to use a semicolon:

He was late and as a result he didn't catch the bus.
He was late; as a result he didn't catch the bus.

A separate question is whether a comma is expected before and/or after "as a result".

A comma is usually placed after such a phrase. With the semicolon yoking the two independent clauses, it's simple:

He was late; as a result, he didn't catch the bus.

But how to punctuate when using "and"?

It is important to note that these are conventions, and not part of the language itself; when speaking we use syntactic pauses and intonation patterns to indicate where clauses begin and end.

You will probably find in the wild both forms below:

He was late, and as a result, he didn't catch the bus.

He was late and, as a result, he didn't catch the bus.

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  • I see that your answer and mine are slightly different. Let's see what comments we both get. It seems I am more minimalistic about commas. Commented Sep 1, 2015 at 13:45
  • I've seen on several textbooks saying "He was late and as a result he didn't catch the bus. He was late; as a result he didn't catch the bus." but also some dictionaries saying "He was late, as a result, he didn't catch the bus." Here I want to share a point of how my teacher taught me about this. We learned several words like " thus" and "whereas". I was taught that when connecting two clauses, adverbs like "thus" need and; however, whereas, being a conjunction itself, doesn't need another "and". Commented Sep 3, 2015 at 5:06
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He was late, as a result, he didn't catch the bus.

My suggestions

He was late. As a result he didn't catch the bus.

He was late; he didn't catch the bus.

He was late: as a result he didn't catch the bus.

He was late and didn't catch the bus.

You might like to consult the article Using the semi-colon and colon from the Universtiy of Leicester.

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  • the semi-colon and colon part was perfect. As for my countries English education, they made no effort to teach this. what a fail Commented Sep 3, 2015 at 5:02

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