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I'm trying to figure out if it is possible to use the expression "by now" in a present perfect sentence.

I.e.

"He has been called three times by now"

"He has come back home by now"

"I have had seven guitars by now"

"I have met him by now"

Are these correct? And if they're not – please explain why not.

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All of these appear to make perfect sense and are understandable. That is to say if the speaker is using these by way of referring to events, actions and experiences with still a relevance to the present. Present perfect tense also can be used in order to tell of experiences without including the definite date or the time of it happening

such as:

"I have gone to Spain once."

not

"I have gone to Spain last week."

the above is incorrect as it defies the the logical use of the present perfect by digressing from the present time thereby nullifying the essential function of this tense which needs to stay relevant to the current moment.

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