I had discovered that the term "Peeping Tom" comes from the story of Lady Godiva as being the only person who dared look at her as she rode naked through the streets. I then tried to find other words with similar historical significance but I only found defenestration. Defenestration was the term referring to the defenestrations of Prague that sparked two separate wars with two separate defenestrations. I am not sure if defenestration fits what I am looking for but I could not find other words with similar historical significance. Are these words unique?
If you google on "historical allusion", you will find a lot of words with similar historical significance, e.g.:
you, too Brutus!
Potato chips are my diet's Achilles heel.
He was a Good Samaritan yesterday when he helped the lady start her car.
- John Travolta in "Grease" was most girl's Apollo.
- The club decided to boycott any cosmetics company that tested products on animals. (Captain Charles Cunningham Boycott was an English land agent in Ireland. In 1880, in the midst of controversy over the “Irish Land Question”, he and his family were ostracized by the community).
Many terms in English have a well-known history.
We are not allowed to create lists so I'll offer just one example.
"to turn a blind eye"
To knowingly refuse to acknowledge something which you know to be real.
Admiral Horatio Nelson is supposed to have said this when wilfully disobeying a signal to withdraw during a naval engagement.
You may also be interested in an etymology dictionary, for example Online Etymology Dictionary