Is the word put a synonym to throw? If a boy exerts his strength to throw a ball, can we also use "put" to describe such? Some online dictionaries define put as "throw a force or weight," which is confusing.
Well, if you put the ball in the basket, you scored. If you threw the ball at the basket, you could still have missed. It's a little less confusing if you say you threw the ball into the basket, but an emotionally invested team fan might still want some clarification. No such confusion with "put." Plus it's shorter.
That meaning of put is really only used in the context of the Shot Put (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shot_put). If you tried to use put as a synonym for throw in any other context, you would certainly confuse people.