Is there a word (or words) for a person who uses all resources to the maximum; for example, a person who keeps on using pencils even if they are very small?
characterized by or reflecting economy in the use of resources ~ Dictionary.com
By being frugal, he's able to make his box of pencils last a very long time.
avoiding waste or extravagance; thrifty: ~ Dictionary.com
He is economical by nature. He can make a box of pencils last a year.
1. using money and other resources carefully and not wastefully.
he had been brought up to be thrifty and careful
I have one friend who's incredibly efficient. He extracts full value from everything; nothing goes to waste in his life. He won't even trash a pencil until it's too small to hold.
"Thrify", "frugal", and even "economical", while good answers to this question, unfortunately have come to carry negative connotations, in that they're often seen as euphemisms for "cheap", "stingy", or "miserly".
"Provident" is another antonym of "wasteful". It is defined by Merriam-Webster as "making provision for the future : prudent" and as "frugal, saving". It is not as commonly used as most of its synonyms, and perhaps for that very reason, does not bear the same negative connotations.
(Unless, of course, the questioner actually wants negative connotations, in which case I'd recommend "miserly".)
How about resourceful? As in "mark usually has all things electronic, he's quite resourceful that way."
In the case of pencils, the is a device called a "miser" that allows one to use a pencil even when it is very small
I would call that person an optimizer.
Industrious indicates someone maximizes use of available resources. Thrifty indicates minimizes use of resources.
Have you considered the word "exploiter" as a synonym for a person who uses resources to the maximum? Exploiter does have a negative connotation, certainly. See the verb-form definitions here: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/exploiter. Also, the word "uses" is open to various interpretations. "Uses" can mean "consumes" or "exploits", perhaps, or am I far from the intended meaning of the question?
Definition: a frugal person who limits spending and avoids waste, a person who reduces expenditure.
Tending to use or drain (exhaust) all resources.
If you are looking for a word with a negative connotation to describe this person you can try stingy or penurious, but obviously these are most often associated with being tight with funds.
Might still work though if you're describing this person's resourcefulness in a negative way.
Stubgrinder is an apropos eponym in this particular case.
Most terms I know for this refer to the economic/monetary context of the behavior, essentially equating it with "not spending": frugal, economical, thrifty, penny-pinching/er, tightwad, skinflint, cheapskate, pinchfist, cheese-paring/er1. I suppose that there may people who maximize their resource utilization for reasons other than to save money. Some possible such reasons, all unconcerned with saving money: 1. concern over depletion of the world's natural resources (ecology-minded/aware, resource-preserving); 2. a personal ethical stance towards consumption ("I shall drain the cup to the dregs"); 3. a form of obsessiveness (retentive); 4. a primary repugnance (or phobia) towards waste (waste-averse/phobic).
1 All the italicized terms in this list are generally considered both colloquial and derogatory.
the ultimate should be the utilizer or utilizitron.
e.g.: He is a utilizator, he utilizes the pen to its last drop.