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In my native language, if today is 1st and Sunday and we want to refer to the next Sunday (on 8th) then we may say the "today's eighth day" or just "8th day". For example if you're asking when does the festival begin? Someone may reply: 8th day. Obviously the count 8 includes today. On the other hand if we excluded today then it'd have been the 7th day from today.

Does English have an expression like that? If so today is Sunday and one wants to refer to Tuesday, is it called 2nd day from today or 3rd day from today?

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    We typically say, "n days from today". And since "1 day from today" can't mean today (that would be 0 days from today) we'd say "2 days from now" or "2 days from today" to mean Tuesday if today was Sunday.
    – Jim
    Aug 1 '15 at 23:38
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    I'm not sure. We could say, "I'll meet you three days from now" or "I'll meet you in three days time" Is that what you mean? Aug 1 '15 at 23:39
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    So if you plan to see someone tomorrow, you say you'll see them in two days not one? English doesn't normally work that way, although this is the confusion that led to penal sentences of a year and a day. Cultural differences are common here; for example in English two weeks is a fortnight (14 days) yet in Spanish it is a quincena (15 days) for the same period.
    – tchrist
    Aug 1 '15 at 23:40
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    I think that what chasly said is the closest... "I'll meet you in three days" or "I'll see you in a week". That's all we've got. I've lived in a big city my entire life and being aware of the day of the week and the time is inherent in everything. Even when I forget what day it is, if I say "Um... Tuesday... when's that?" Someone would likely reply "It's Sunday, so, in two days".
    – Catija
    Aug 1 '15 at 23:57
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    @Lavya Same day in a week is 7 days for English speakers but 8 days for Spanish speakers.
    – tchrist
    Aug 2 '15 at 1:21
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The comments have given you all the details of using numbers in precise ways.

My answer is going to give you the natural ways of talking about time (in terms of days) in English. I wasn't sure if you are also interested in that, but in case you are, here goes.

Mostly we use the name of the day of the week, but we can also say tomorrow, day after tomorrow, yesterday and day before yesterday; and we can also use the date, e.g. We decided to meet on the 11th or on August 11th.

The most common chunks of time are a week, 10 days, two weeks, and month. If you don't mind being a little vague, a couple of days or a few days -- I would interpret those as being two or three, possibly four.

The rhythm of the work week and then the weekend give us very strong signposts -- this must be different from a farming village. So you'll hear early next week, the beginning of the week, the middle of the week, the end of the week, close to the weekend, etc.

Your bookclub might meet on the second Tuesday of the month.

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    Thanks. I suppose the modern work culture of weekdays-weekend makes the use of "day" (as in Monday Tuesday) as well as dates more prevalent than old style agrarian villages, where the emphasis might be on the time period.
    – Lavya
    Aug 2 '15 at 2:29
  • the closest example I can think of is fortnight which is a two week period.
    – Yeshe
    Aug 2 '15 at 6:08
  • @Yeshe Please see my paragraph about the common chunks of time. Aug 2 '15 at 14:26
  • Yes, you alluded to it while I provided an actual word.I did not obelize your answer (it is quite good) I merely expanded upon it with an example such as overmorrow, the word for the day after tomorrow.
    – Yeshe
    Aug 2 '15 at 17:58
  • @Yeshe Sorry, in my experience (mostly American English), fortnight isn't very common; overmorrow is something I have never heard! And obelize I'm going to have to look up in a dictionary! ---- Just curious, what flavor of English do you speak, or what region of the world are you from? Aug 2 '15 at 18:08

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