Did the phrase "Dutch defence" pre-date the use of the term in chess?
The Wikipedia article on Dutch Defence says the concept described by the term originated in the 18th century:
Elias Stein (1748–1812), an Alsatian who settled in The Hague, recommended the defence as the best reply to 1.d4 in his 1789 book Nouvel essai sur le jeu des échecs, avec des réflexions militaires relatives à ce jeu.
Dutch defence: a legal tactic whereby you rat someone out in order to get off free (first recorded in 1749)
I've also heard of "Dutch defence" having another meaning:
Dutch defence: retreat, rather than fight.
The Online Etymology Dictionary doesn't have an entry for "Dutch defence" (or defense), nor does Wiktionary.