Is incorrect capitalization, such as the lowercase "i" in
[Can] i [this sic] have an if statement within a dialog box code?
considered a spelling mistake, or some other type of error?
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I can almost guarantee that different people will answer this both "yes" and "no".
As a Wiktionary contributor I've found some people can be quite forceful in their insistence that spelling applies only to letters and not to capitalization, hyphens, apostrophes, or to the characters in Chinese or Japanese for that matter.
On the other hand you will find many many sentences like this if you search:
So it is clear that many people do use the word “spell” to cover use of capital letters.
EDIT: I'll improve my answer, starting with my comment:
I think it can be categorised differently. If you know it must be capitalised, it might be a simple typo... If you don't know it, then you could consider it an orthographic error.
Orthography has this origin:
[taken from NOAD] - ORIGIN: late Middle English, via Old French and Latin from Greek
orthographia, from orthos ‘correct’ + -graphia ‘writing.’
Spelling is a part of Orthography, linguistically speaking, but as you can see here, "other elements of the field of orthography are hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation".
I think it's what you were looking for.
N.B. Previous answer deleted as it didn't fit the question.
We never say, "We grammar a word with a capital letter" because grammar isn't an action word. We do say, "We spell a word with a capital letter" because spell is an action we do when writing. If we make an error doing something, then that action is said to be in error. In this case that would be "spell." This is why we say this is a "spelling error."
Is incorrect capitalization considered a spelling error? Capitalization is something done while writing, and orthography is the method of spelling words in a printed form. Since Orthography is the method we use to write words, then, other than by accident or ignorance, incorrect capitalization would be considered spelling error. This is because Orthography defines spelling as it is written, but not as it is spoken.
Here, capitalization error is listed under:
"common grammatical errors"
And not in spelling errors, but i found somewhere it's also an independent category of error. I think both supposed to be correct.