Suppose someone falls in love with someone who's dead, by seeing his picture or by hearing about him. What would this person or situation would be called?
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I'm not aware of a specific word or idiom in English for this particular circumstance. If I needed to describe it other than literally, and if I had the right set of readers, I would call it a Pictures of Lily situation. This being a "literary" reference to a somewhat-famous song by The Who whose first-person lyrics fit the bill precisely.
In the beginning of the song, the singer laments his inability to sleep. When his father gives him the pictures of the song's eponymous Lily, he feels better, and is able to sleep. Soon, he feels desire for Lily as a person instead of a photo, and asks his father for an introduction. His father informs him however that "Lily" has, in fact, been dead since 1929. Initially, the singer laments, but before long turns back to his fantasy.
That person would be enamored by the dead person's beauty or works. "falling in love" might be a little bit of an exaggeration here.
Perhaps pining would be what you are looking for?
When you saw his picture, it was love at first sight; thoughts of him possessed you.
This is a form of unrequited love: the kind that is felt for someone who can never return it. It can also be felt for the living, as is the case in the ever-popular celebrity crush - strong attraction to famous figures seen in movies or other popular media, people who are in your sight but beyond your reach.
This case in particular is a bit morbid due to the element of death. I'd therefore tend to call it a morbid crush, and perhaps describe it further as unrequited love at first sight of the deceased.
The person could said to be "devoted to the memory of..."
If you talk about the memory of someone who has died, especially someone who was loved or respected, you are referring to the thoughts, actions, by which they are remembered. ⇒ She remained devoted to his memory.
A couple of good adjectives for either the individual or their plight would be, forlorn and piteous.
1. pitifully sad and abandoned or lonely. "forlorn figures at bus stops"
synonyms: unhappy, sad, miserable, sorrowful, dejected, despondent
2. (of an aim or endeavor) unlikely to succeed or be fulfilled; hopeless. "a forlorn attempt to escape";
synonyms: hopeless, vain, with no chance of success, (definition courtesy of Google)
piteous adjective: deserving or arousing pity.
synonyms: sad, pitiful, pitiable, pathetic, heart-rending, heartbreaking, moving, touching. (definition courtesy of Google)
Infatuation or, more likely Morbid Infatuation would seem likely.
the state of being carried away by an unreasoned passion or love
In addition to "Pictures of Lilly", Marc Cohn's "Girl Of Mysterious Sorrow" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLkWW94HOTYdescribes the situation.
I'm coming to see you, tomorrow sometime
Gonna bring you some roses, gonna tear off the vines
Gonna talk to the wind that blows through the trees
Kiss you like always from down on my knees