I know that the participle can be part of a verb to express continuous tense, perfect tense, passive voice. And it also can has a separate line as an adjective. The participle adjective have either active meaning or passive meaning. Ex : I am tired. ( I receive the adjective ) The book is interesting. ( I think the book is interesting, so I'm interested in reading the book.)
Recently, I have been learning the participle phrase which includes the participle and the object of the participle or any words modified by or related to the participle. The participle phrase does the whole job as an adjective. It can have either active meaning or passive meaning( like above ). Ex : Shocked at the size of the giant, she quickly ran for her life. ( she was shocked ) Having realized there is no hope for his job, he gave up. ( He had realize ) Looking at the hills, she remembered her childhood. ( she was looking at the hills )
Question 1 : Is there amy relation between participle adjective and participle phrase? (Though a participle phrase looks like a verb with object, it can function as an adjective.)
Question 2 : When do we use the present participle phrase? (at the same time as the action in the main part of the sentence?)
Question 3 : What can the present participle phrase reduce? (the continuous or simple tense? Or all of the active verbs can be reduced? )
Don't tell me it can reduce the relative clause. I know that.
Question 4 : Why do some grammar books and websites say that the participle phrase can also function as an adverbial? (Such as : After he had passed the exam, he went to study English abroad. > Passing the exam, he went to study English abroad.) What is that? It seems like an adverb being reduced to a gerund phrase with "after".
Question 5 : It is obvious that I'm confused. I wonder that either participle phrase or participle adjective do not show any tense right? (A phrase is a group of words without a finite verb, so I suppose that it does not show any tense as a non-finite.)