Like, there are leaves on the outside, and leaves on the inside which are usually protected from the elements.
I believe there aren't any words to describe this. Adhering to a phyllotaxy dictionary also doesn't yield good results.
You may want to use 'sheltered/shielded/inner foliage' or 'inter-verduary so-and-so' or even 'secluded leafage/foliage'.
Capitalizing on the 'covered' aspect, by using adjectives like 'umbriferous' (Meaning: casting shade or shadow), in a different syntax as opposed to your sentence can also, if done right, yield the same result.