The question is not, about an area which had had government and has fallen into (or achieved!) anarchy, nor about areas which are considered by the inhabitants to be a settlement in continuation or expansion of some dominant group's former country.
Edit To clarify, the society would be characterized as not having anything beyond family units.
Edit 2 Wilderness, or March, are words which cover some aspects of the idea; and, the word I seek (if such exists) is that which would refer to the area itself, not so much, refer to the characterization of the people living within it.
I appreciate the inputs though! The closest I can think of is frontier, but that is too broad, imprecise.
~3 July~ From all the thoughtful comments and answers, it would seem that any number of descriptive phrases could be concocted to serve, perhaps only an archaic word, or a loaner word, might still be thought of. I am not experienced enough with this site and community to know how far afield the question can wander, since it is after all a site about the English language. Cheers!