Very difficult sentence structure. The bold part is very confusing.
Although these molecules allow radiation wavelength, where most of the energy of sunlight is concentrated, to pass through, they absorb some of the longer wavelength, infrared emissions radiated from Earth's surface, radiation that would otherwise be transmitted back into space.
The bold part is very awkward. My friend told me "radiation that would otherwise be transmitted..." is the appositive clause to "infrared emissions radiated.....". I don't trust her. So what is the interpretation of the bolded part?