What do you call someone who is favored by a higher authority, such as in the work place they get more perks than other people...teacher's pet?
Protege or protégé
a person who is protected and aided by the patronage of another person
one who is protected or trained or whose career is furthered by a person of experience, prominence, or influence
1778, from French protégé (fem. protégée) "one who is protected," noun use of past participle of Middle French protéger "protect," from Latin protegere
A person may be an acknowledged protege, where it is widely understood that he/she receives special treatment as part of preparation for a future job assignment. Or that person may be disparagingly referred to as a protege by others who feel the treatment is undeserved.
"A blue-eyed boy" (in BrE and AusE, according to FDE)
- He was very much the blue-eyed boy in the office.
- It's no use complaining to the manager about Jerry. He is his blue-eyed boy.
"teacher's pet" as you suggested, also fits. As well as "fair-haired boy"
Teacher’s pet, yes, perhaps, if you are looking for a term of abuse (which may indeed be applied metaphorically outside the schoolroom setting). But I would suggest connected:
having useful social, professional, or commercial relationships [M-W]
You can even use this when the “higher authority” in question is supernatural, or mafioso, or what you will.
anoint - to choose by or as if by divine election; also : to designate as if by a ritual anointment
Example of use:
From the beginning of his rise with George Bush until the day of his abrupt resignation, Alberto Gonzales was anointed, directed and protected by Karl Rove.
Used to describe someone, you could say they are "the anointed one".
You may consider also the expression, have friends in high places:
to know important people who can help you get what you want.
- He has plenty of friends in high places willing to support his political career.
(Cambridge Idioms Dictionary)
chosen one - sole person chosen by destiny to stop an impending disaster that threatens all life