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I have the following sentence:

By selecting an element, a dialogue box opens in which the user selects or defines distinguishing features of the anchor node based on the node’s attributes (e.g. id , class), the whole text or a pattern in the text.

An alternative with possessive pronoun is:

By selecting an element, a dialogue box opens in which the user selects or defines distinguishing features of the anchor node based on its attributes (e.g. id , class), its whole text or a pattern in its text.

That is an example, and there are many cases that I don't know to use "the" or "its"....

Which option is preferred? or a combination of both? How can I factor the repeated "its"?

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Both possessive pronouns and articles are determiners, so in many cases, such as in your example, it is a matter of style or preference, that is: do you want to refer to the nouns by an article or a pronoun? To the repetition of its sounds bad here. I wouldn't mix and match unless you know what you're doing, that is, until you have a much greater command of English that you have now.

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