I'm seeking a word for the idea that humans are fundamentally different from other animals, in that they can't e.g. feel emotions such as fear, anger, jealousy, &c. It's not quite the same as anthropocentric (= "regarding the human being as the central fact of the universe"), but similar. Any ideas?
We're cognizant. Self-aware. Aware of others. Aware of the ramifications of our actions, not just unthinking automatons.
As the question comments said, so are a number of other species.
EDIT. One person in the comments below is having a particular difficulty seeing how this answer relates to the question. So I will help out with a Google search and quoting from Wikipedia. Sorry for all the extra fluff.
Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals. It is not to be confused with consciousness in the sense of qualia. While consciousness is a term given to being aware of one’s environment and body and lifestyle, self-awareness is the recognition of that awareness.
And the article on animal consciousness...
Animal consciousness, or animal awareness, is the quality or state of self-awareness within an animal, or, of being aware of an external object or something within itself. In humans, consciousness has been defined as: sentience, awareness, subjectivity, qualia, the ability to experience or to feel, wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood, and the executive control system of the mind. Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is.
The topic of animal consciousness is beset with a number of difficulties. It poses the problem of other minds in an especially severe form because animals, lacking the ability to express human language, cannot tell us about their experiences. Also, it is difficult to reason objectively about the question, because a denial that an animal is conscious is often taken to imply that it does not feel, its life has no value, and that harming it is not morally wrong. The 17th-century French philosopher René Descartes, for example, has sometimes been blamed for mistreatment of animals because he argued that only humans are conscious.