Clauses that describe consequences are called clauses of result in English terminology. The traditional name in Latin grammar is consecutive clauses.
Clauses of result belong to the group of adverbial clauses.
The basic structures are
1 so that-clause (describing consequence/result)
2 so + adjective that-clause (consequence/result).
1a The gravestones were covered with moss so that it was impossible to read the names on them. (Longman DCE)
2a It was so cold that the water froze.
Of course, there are variants.
You can make such sentences clearer by inserting "consequence":
1b The gravestone were covered with moss.
The consequence was that it was impossible to read the names on them.
2b It was so cold and the consequence was that the water froze.