First, mistakes. Get that out of the way:
Could you explain me please when I should use "to", "to the" or no one of these, there also was explained that "the" is never used with home or school.
Explain to me...
Should use neither of, if two choices or none of, if more than two.
Okay, now the question. It's a good one.
Where using a word to refer to a class or category of place, like school or home, you don't use the article.
"I go to school five days a week." "When I go home, I pass by the airport."
When referring to a specific building, the article is used.
"Can you tell me where the school is?"
Also, titles of institutions often contain articles and these should be used when referring to them.
"I studied at The London School of Economics."
Home is almost always used generally, but there are exceptions.
"The dog was sent to a home for stray animals." "He comes from a good home." "Canada is the home of cajun cooking."
Airport is always used with an article.
"Take me to the airport."
Airport is never used to refer to a class or category. You wouldn't say,
"When in airport, never leave baggage unattended"
but you could say,
"He went to school to be an air traffic controller"
"Don't leave your passport at home when you go to the airport."