When the first part of a conditional’s if-clause is inverted and the if consequently dropped, is the missing if just a plain old “simple if”, or is it more of an “even if”? For example, in this sentence the bold part is an inverted conditional:
He could not believe that, had the Englishman known how much he was at risk, he would have hazarded his grandson.
I’m trying to figure out the exact meaning of the missing if through the context, but the example sentence consists of just the three pieces with two conjunctions (if-clause, that-clause) and there is no more, so I became confused as to which of these senses was intended:
If the Englishman had known how much he (=Englishman) was at risk, he would have hazarded his grandson.
Even if the Englishman had known how much he (=his grandson) was at risk, he would have hazarded his grandson.
Which of those two possibilities is the right one here, and in general, how is one to make that determination for any given situation like this one?