Is there a synonym for the word "surroundings" which describes the closest surroundings of a spaceship in space (to specify scales lets say distance between planet and ship when ship is on geostationary orbit) and synonym which describes somewhat greater surroundings with radius comparable to distances between planets?
For the closest surroundings:
Not specific for what you are asking, "environment" means "the conditions that surround someone or something"
You might say
- "The environmental conditions outside the spaceship are incompatible with life as we know it."
- "It's extremely difficult to live in such harsh environment."
- "environment" - The totality of the natural world, often excluding humans. TFD
Edit: "environment" is the perfect synonym for "surroundings". It seems to me, however, that you are looking for something more like "space", as in "celestial space", "intercosmic space", "intergalactic space", or "interplanetary space".