The words "high" and "low" generally refer to magnitude or vertical distance. How did these words come to be associated with pitch?
We can draw comparison to high ("large") or low ("small") frequency, but it would seem to me that the terminology of music should rather predate the terminology of wave physics by some hundreds of years. (The terminology for, say, choral music was well-developed as at least as far back as the 15th century and one should imagine that the fundamentals of pitch terminology are a good deal older, while wave physics was in its infancy as late as the 18th century?)
In fact, the closest synonyms for both vertical distance ("tall", "short") and magnitude ("big", "small") to me intuitively represent pitches in the opposite direction from "high/low" - i.e. a "short" or "small" note would be a "high" one because of e.g. the length of the string or size of the pipe, bar, or drum producing the pitch.
To make matters even more confusing, the latin bassus (the derivative of the English "base" - meaning e.g. "foundation", or "of low value" and obviously "bass" meaning "low-pitched") also means "short", and the latin altus meaning "high" (which I assume is the source of "high" meaning "high-pitched" in English) also means "deep"!
Is there an accepted etymology for how "high" and "low" came to be used for pitch rather than "big/small", "long/short", "shallow/deep", etc?
Is there a fundamental connection between high pitches and "up" (and between low pitches and "down")?
Perhaps more relevantly (and certainly more answerably!), is this consistent outside of English and the romance languages?