I need to write a handover report and realized this word "decessor" is underlined in red by the word editor, my question is can I still use this word in formal situation and why "predecessor" is acceptable?

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    The Latin word meant "retiring or departed officeholder", and OED 1 gives a couple of instances from the middle of the 17th century, but the word there clearly has the same sense as "predecessor", and it never caught on. – StoneyB on hiatus Mar 28 '15 at 15:36

No, you cannot/should not use "decessor."

Contrary to "predecessor," it's not in the Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary, and this says a lot about it being accepted. Equally, it's not found at Google Books except in Latin texts, the ones in English being all cases of syllabication of "predecessor."

Not everything that works in Latin has been conveyed/accepted to English:-)

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