When communicating with foreign cultures, the gender of the addressed person is not always clear from the name. What would be a professional way to address someone in this situation. (Dear Mr or Ms SomeForeignName looks awkward).

A hack I generally use is to do a google image search for the name, but this isn't always accurate in all cultures. What's the solution here?


6 Answers 6


Working part-time in customer support, I have to deal with the same situation very often, and I often have to google for "awkward" names, too. What I usually end up with when nothing helps, is either of the following:

  • I just drop the "Mr/Ms" altogether. "Dear Maria Cannavaro", "Dear Wei Li", etc.
  • If the person is located in the US, I assume that they do not object to being addressed by their first name. "Dear Maria", "Dear Alex".

Also, I might sometimes use a simple "Hi there" or "Hi", but usually only if the person has previously contacted me using a similar informal address.

Lastly, sometimes people do ask me for a license key in a formal, polite way, but sign as "B. Smith". In that case, they either don't really care how I address them, or they don't want me to figure out their gender or full name for some reason, which I must respect. Not one of these people has ever objected to my use of "hi".

  • I just wanted to start a reply to an email with "Thank you very much <title> <lastname> for ......" A name just wont cut it in this case. Anyway google images gave me a positive id on the recipient's gender. It was a woman
    – Midhat
    Commented Sep 1, 2010 at 17:21
  • 1
    @Midhat: way to go! However, if Google had failed, I would see no problem with rewording it as "Dear <firstname>, thank you very much for ...".
    – RegDwigнt
    Commented Sep 1, 2010 at 18:02
  • 13
    I always worry that I'm using the wrong name with cultures I'm unfamiliar with -- that the family name comes first and my attempts to say "Hi Mike" actually say "Hi Jones." I've become a big fan of the full name ("Dear Wei Li") when I'm not sure. Commented Sep 1, 2010 at 18:51
  • In the United States, it is disrespectful to address someone by their first name unless you are a personal friend of the recipient. desmoinesregister.com/story/money/business/columnists/2017/04/… Commented Oct 20, 2021 at 13:30

Given our construction of gender, 'tis usually a far greater sin to falsely assign a gender than to avoid formal address.

  • 3
    This gotta be a comment, not a real answer. But yeah. I agree
    – Midhat
    Commented Sep 2, 2010 at 17:27
  • 5
    @Midhat: This answers the question, albeit obliquely. Leave out the gender if it's unknown. Don't try to address the issue unless you can positively ID the person. Commented Sep 3, 2010 at 14:12

For Wei Li, I would not break up the name and say Dear Wei or Dear Li, because some people use reverse order with surname first, and some people have compound names.


In 2015, ODO added Mx (pronounced like "mix") as a gender-neutral pronoun.

See definition 2 for Mx on ODO

Pronunciation: /məks/ /mɪks/

A title used before a person’s surname or full name by those who wish to avoid specifying their gender or by those who prefer not to identify themselves as male or female

"To me, Mx Bond embodies the very best kind of girl a boy could ever grow up to become."


1970s: apparently from M (as in Mr, Mrs, Ms, etc.) + X1 (probably denoting an unknown or variable factor or quantity).

For further reading: Mx (title) on Wikipedia

The word was first proposed in the late 1970s. The "x" is intended to stand as a wildcard character, and does not imply a "mixed" gender.

Ngram shows some data, but it's unclear what Mx means there.

  • Mx. Smith, seems too much like Mr. "X". It's easy to concoct alternatives, M?. Smith, Mystery Smith, Hm. Smith, but the problem is that formality itself implies sensitivity and shared customs, which requires knowledge of the other party, so lacking such knowledge the situation seems intrinsically impersonal and therefore pre-formal. One might use the role of the unknown person, i.e. "Dear Potential Customer Bond", "Dear Correspondent Bond," as a form of address.
    – agc
    Commented Aug 8, 2016 at 21:44
  • @agc That is true, and is mentioned in other answers as well. So I didn't include it in mine. :)
    – NVZ
    Commented Aug 8, 2016 at 21:47

If you are lucky there may be a title you can choose. "Dear Professor Doe" is safe for either gender. Likewise of "Doctor" (either the academic or the medical/veterinary/dental variety), and for military, police or clerical ranks.

Failing that I go with "Dear Full Name" as others have suggested, as it contains nothing that might offend and still conveys a basic degree of formality and respect.

  • Even if there isn’t a title, you can fake it and use one. In most contexts, people will not be offended if you mistakenly address them them “Dr.” — certainly less offended then if you accidentally mis-gender them!
    – PLL
    Commented Apr 11, 2011 at 2:53
  • @PLL: And if the recipient is entitled to an honorific title, you must use it. Failure to do so is a faux pas even if you get the gender correct.
    – Ben Voigt
    Commented May 3, 2015 at 1:04

When faced with this problem in an email (my most normal scenario), I look at the signature and use that to address the person.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.