- other people not present
Is there a specific name for topics like this?
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Yes, it's called a taboo subject/topic.
What other things might be considered taboo depends on the social situation. It's not always that the subjects themselves are taboo/unmentionable, but their tendency to foment heated, divisive, or even disruptive discussions (or awkward, embarrassing moments), so they are avoided in certain circles. For example, a couple might set certain house rules.
A less loaded term: off-limits.
Some other topics usually considered off-limits — (This is not meant as an exhaustive list, but it covers the most common ones in USA.)
politics (among some people, it's not even safe to mention the President's name, lest you stir up a hornet's nest.)
religion (nobody agrees about this, unless all present are of the same denomination)
your or anyone else's salary (especially sensitive subcategory of the "money" topic you mentioned)
any woman's age
a person's weight or fatness, or a woman's dress size
other people's drinking or drug use (except jokingly, among fellow users)
So what does that leave as "safe" topics? Here are a few:
sports, recreation, hunting & fishing (at least among most guys)
cars (among guys)
one's kids (but it's considered bad taste to either complain too much or brag too much about your kids)
wives (in men-only groups, although not wise to mention sex))
husbands (in small female groups; ditto)
Fashion (mainly among women-only groups)
This could also be referred to, variously, as examples of a social indiscretion, impropriety, or gaffe
1: lack of discretion: imprudence
2 a: something (as an act or remark) marked by lack of discretion
b: an act at variance with the accepted morality of a society see, Merriam-Webster indiscretion
impropriety noun: plural noun: improprieties
a failure to observe standards or show due honesty or modesty; improper language, behavior, or character. See, Google impropriety
1: a social or diplomatic blunder
2: a noticeable mistake. see, Merriam-Webster gaffe
You've already had unmentionable in the comments. Consider also unspoken. If something is in the background of a conversation but not directly mentioned because it's a too sensitive topic then you might even call it the elephant in the room.
Some topics are considered unsuitable for conversation - traditional dinner party etiquette says to avoid religion and politics. Others add money, bodily functions and body odours - the phrase for this is that such topics are not to be discussed in polite conversation or are not for polite company.
I think that you are referring to behaviours that are considered normal or usual within a community. Taboo probably has a too strong connotation.
I think custom or consuetude may fit the context:
- a usual or habitual practice; typical mode of behaviour
(Sociology) the long-established habits or traditions of a society collectively;
- convention: custom dictates good manners.
If we confine the question to the topics you use as examples, then polite or taboo may be suitable labels. However, if you extend the range of conversation to topics such as corporate profit margins, The President's home phone number, how much money you made last year, or the combination to your home safe, you probably would classify these as private, prohibited, or privileged topics.
Uncouth is a word I often use to describe how I feel discussing money owed to me by friends or family. Like I feel “tacky” “trashy” or the opposite of classy, asking “hey when are you going to be able to pay me back for that $___ (which is usually in the hundreds of dollars, not just $20 here or there) I lent you __ months ago?” Does anyone else feel this way discussing money in general?