1819 in English, from 1804 as a French word, from French artiste; a reborrowing of artist, at first in a foreign context, later used to fill the gap after the sense of artist had become limited toward the visual arts and especially painting.
Artiste: an admirable word (albeit somewhat Frenchified) of late applied, with nice discrimination, to every species of exhibitor, from a rope-dancer down to a mere painter or sculptor.
something a little earlier...
Meaning "display, spectacle" is first recorded 1560s; that of "ostentatious display" is from 1713 (showy is from 1712).
1712, from show (n.) + -y (2). Related: Showiness; showiness. Originally in a positive sense.
"one who presents shows," 1734, from show (n.) + man (n.).
"actress whose role is decorative rather than histrionic" [OED], 1836, from show (v.) + girl.
1580s, agent noun from perform (v.). Theatrical sense is from 1711.