Part of the problem here is that the situations are slightly distorted: we don't usually need to say
I have thrown the ball
Because the listener can see what we did. Let's assume a situation where it makes sense to describe an action, for some reason the listener cannot see the situation, perhaps we're having a phone conversation.
If we are giving a narrative then the simple past works well
I took the ball, then I threw the ball and as I did I slipped and I fell.
However, there is a style of narrative where we might use the present perfect, this is rather dramatic, we can imagine a reality radio show:
I have taken the ball, I have thrown the ball! Oh no, I slipped and I have fallen.
So I think that the present perfect works well when we want to convey immediacy. On the phone:
Are you ready?
Yes, I have taken the ball.
Feels like a better answer than
Yes, I took the ball.
I have taken feels positive and pro-active.