In electronic theft cashing out stolen money is a large problem: if you hack into someone's bank account and transfer the money to your bank account, the operation is trivially trackable to your name.
The criminals overcome this problem by hiring service from homeless, addicts, and other such 'refuse of the society' - for a small fee, such person creates a bank account, to which the stolen money is transferred. Then they cash out at the bank or ATM, and pass most of the money to the criminals, while keeping a small margin for themselves.
In other cases they manage purchases of items which are legal to own but easily trackable as used in a major crime (plus trackable to the buyer) - for example chemicals used to make drugs, or obtain documents to their name, which are then used by criminals to perform fraudulent operations, providing identity which will make the pursuit futile.
Frequently, they are soon caught, but their social situation makes it obvious it wasn't them who committed the theft, they can't provide much info on the criminals, and merely acting as a minor accomplice of the criminals lands them a small sentence which they serve, while keeping the money (or having them spent even before being caught).
How is such a 'job'/'position' called?
In Polish this is called "Słup", literally a pole the kind like telegraph poles. I'm not sure about the exact origin, but it almost certainly comes from prison slang. And of course, consecutively, English slang name is perfectly okay for the answer.
I've encountered the name 'Smurfs' appearing in the show 'Breaking Bad', but I'm not sure if this is the case - 'Smurfs' were people who purchased small amounts of off-the-shelf drugs which were then used to make illegal drugs. By making small purchases like that, they wouldn't arise suspicions. Here we have a case where the purchase definitely does arise suspicion, for example a bulk order from a wholesale retailer. But since at the moment of the purchase there's no reason to refuse it, the substance is sold, and when the drug on the streets is tracked back to the purchase, the identity of the buyer is a dead end.