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- “Each” — pronoun or adverb 2 answers
What do Online Dictionaries Say?
Cambridge Dictionaries Online says each is used as an adverb in the following examples:
There are five leaflets – please take one of each.
Each of the brothers has a different personality.
It’s 500 miles each way.
The bill comes to $80, so that’s $20 each
Oxford Dictionaries says each is a determiner and a pronoun in the following
each one of us was asked what went on (determiner)
Derek had money from each of his five uncles (pronoun)
Merriam-Webster's entry for each states it is an adjective,
A rope was tied to each end of the boat.
Each student had a different explanation.
He took shot after shot, each missing by inches
and an adverb
They cost 50 cents each.
We were allowed two tries each.
But Wikipedia tells me that each is an indefinite pronoun
Each of the players has a doctor
and Grammar Monster (which btw I really like) says that each is an indefinite adjective
An indefinite adjective is used to describe a noun in a non-specific sense.
The most common indefinite adjectives are: any, each, few, many, much, most, several, and some. They are often used to describe a noun to show an element of uncertainty.
Indefinite adjectives should not be confused with indefinite pronouns. Indefinite adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. Indefinite pronouns are standalone pronouns
- I gave my friends a book each
- I gave each a book
- I gave each of my three friends a book
- I gave a book to each one of my friends
- Each one of my friends received a book
- Each friend of mine received a book
I believe that all the sentences above are grammatical. If any are considered non-standard in English, please please tell me!
For sentence No. 1, I cannot find a satisfying "tag" to place on each. Since the word "each" is placed at the end of a sentence, I suppose it must be an adverb but it feels like a quantifier to me because it tell me how many books, i.e. to each of my friends. Is each in No.1 an adverb? Why?
Sentence 2 is definitely a pronoun.
For sentences 3, 4, and 5 "each of" and "each one of" can be substituted with all of, with no loss in meaning. But are each of and each one of pronouns? If we use a pronoun to replace a noun phrase or a noun, then how can each in: each (one) of my friends be a pronoun? And I imagine it can't be an indefinite pronoun because we know exactly "how many" people in sentence 3. Oxford Dictionaries suggest that each of is a pronoun but each one of is a determiner.
In sentence 6 each is an adjective/determiner/indefinite adjective because it tells us something about the number of friends. Right?