The seven coordinating conjunctions (that is to say words that can be used to connect two independent clauses without one becoming subordinate to the other) are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so (acronym FANBOYS). Conjunctions like although and because are subordinating conjunctions, in that they make the clause that follows them depend on the rest of the sentence for their meaning.
Conjunctions, whether coordinating or subordinating, can happily be inserted between two clauses with no more punctuation than a comma. Sticklers for punctuation would tell you that this is not true of therefore, which is not a connector between two clauses and which should be preceded by a semicolon or a full stop when it begins a new clause. The word therefore is a conjunctive adverb. You can see that it behaves like an adverb when it occurs in the middle of a clause: "It was cold and I therefore stayed indoors". Here it answers the question why in relation to the verb stayed. You might choose to place therefore before the subject I and it would continue to play the same role, but it cannot replace the conjunction and. You need at least a semicolon: "It was cold; therefore I stayed indoors".