I live near a temple and during the morning prayer, more often than not, the loudspeaker would produce a jarring sound.
Is there a single word for the sound distortion from micrphone or amplifier.
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It will depend on just exactly what kind of "jarring noise" you're referring to.
The most common is a high-pitched, very loud sound which persists until the microphone is moved or the volume is reduced. This is feedback, feedback howl, or feedback squeal.
Sometimes it's a scraping sound caused by moving the microphone, and the contact with the supporting surface causes noise. This is called microphonics.
Sometimes it's caused by wind blowing on the microphone (and can often be cured by placing a foam cover over the microphone), and this is called wind pop.
Sometimes it's caused by the speaker or singer speaking or singing too loudly, and that's overload or clipping.
Sometimes it's caused by a bad connection, and is usually called static. If the bad connection is caused by a particular position of the microphone or wires it can be momentary or intermittent (and very hard to track down).
Sometimes it's caused by line-frequency electrical noise, and that's called hum. If it only happens occasionally, it's called intermittent hum. As with static, it may be caused by a certain position of the wires or microphone, and only last a short time.
It is generally referred to as :
- noisy like the sound of a bee.
- like a continuous droning sound of a bee on the wing; buzz.
"Noise", in a sound system, is when, without any intended input, one can hear a hiss, hum, or other sound (perhaps a radio static type sound).
"Distortion", in a sound system, is when the reproduction of sound is not "true". The sound coming out may sound "staticy" and muffled, even though there is no noticeable "noise" when there is no input.
"Feedback", in a sound system, is when sound from the loudspeaker "feeds back" into the microphone (or occasionally due to crossed wires), producing whistle or loud squeal.
All three terms are technical terms in the electronic trades, with essentially the same meanings as above, only applicable to other situations.