"in scenarios that come straight from Kafka" is not an idiom, and I will leave the matter of Kafka and cultural reference to others, but I think your question is a reasonable one and I'd like to point out that the phrase in question actually contains something that can be used idiomatically, in a sense, and that is the following phrasal template:
"come straight from"
as in "X comes straight from Y."
The meaning can either be literal (indicating actual "coming") or figurative (in which case the meaning is like "be reminiscent of" or "seem to be derived from"). Let's start with some literal examples:
This letter came straight from the President.
The box came straight from the warehouse.
I came straight from work to see you today.
Then there are some examples that highlight the seeming to come from somewhere:
This pizza is so good it could have come straight from Italy.
Your car looks like it came straight from the factory.
And then here are some figurative examples:
Don't take that course; the professor comes straight from hell.
The scenarios come straight from Kafka.
Life's sweetest gifts come straight from the heart.
I hope that this has addresses the root of your question.
I recommend the following fascinating reading around the entire issue of phrases and idioms:
Difference between phrase and idiom
What exactly is an idiom? (with a fascinating post by @pavja2)
Also, for good reading on the pervasiveness of figurative or metaphorical language in everyday speech and writing, check out Metaphors We Live By, by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson