In the novel Perfume, by Patrick Süskind, it is notable that the main character appears in the same setting and scenario in the beginning of the novel and in the end. Is there a word for when this happens in novel or TV shows?
This is called bookending or the bookends technique. One explanation is at eHow This technique is also used in speaking. See Andrew Dlugan's speaking blog for a good article. I try to use this technique whenever possible when I write a speech, especially motivational/inspirational speeches.
Bookending is a form of a callback. A callback is when some part of a story, speech, etc., refers back to something earlier.