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As a non-native speaker, I'm having difficulties to understand the difference between 'Education system' and 'Educational system'. Is the 'Educational system' appropriate at all?

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Educational - means something that educates, and it is an adjective
Education - is a noun. When used with objects as a determiner it means related to or about education.

In your concrete example education system refers to the schools, universities, etc. - the system consisting of different bodies that provide education. Though educational system can also be used to refer to the same entity, it is a more general phrase and any system that has an effect of making someone more educated can be considered educational, for example a piece of software that helps kids to learn something can be called educational system.

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  • Educational is often applied to programs and media, such as TV shows, books, etc. An educational show is one that educates. An education show would be a show about education itself.
    – barbecue
    Nov 19, 2014 at 0:24
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"Educational System" is a class of system. An "Education System" is an instance of the class. "Person" is a class. "John" is a person.

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