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Every year the Netherlands sends 20,000 tulip bulbs to Canada to thank 'them' for 'their' aid in the Second World War.

I understand that them and their is used to say about Canada, Why do they not use her or its or his?

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The use of the words their and them are mainly in context.

Here, one is not referring to the country(the land) itself, but the people. Therefore,

Every year the Netherlands sends 20,000 tulip bulbs to Canada to thank them for their aid in the Second World War.

refers to the Canadians who receive gratitude and originally helped the Dutch, making the subject plural.

However, if we refer to the country itself, it is used as a singular noun:

Canada is North of the United States.

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Every year the Netherlands sends 20,000 tulip bulbs to Canada to thank 'them' for 'their' aid in the Second World War.

I understand that them and their is used to say about Canada, Why do they not use her or its or his?

We do not know why "they" used them and their instead of her or his or its. After all, we cannot enter into the mind of the person who wrote that sentence and capture their reason or reasoning.

We also do not know why you used "they" in:

Why do they not use her or its or his?

But, in general, they is often used as a singular, gender-neutral pronoun that can refer to a masculine, feminine, or neuter antecedant.

You can see this in Sentences 22 and 48 on this page:

  1. For someone, somewhere in the world, today is the most amazing day of their life.

and

  1. Somewhere, someone is losing their virginity right now.

Their is a singular pronoun that can refer to a feminine, masculine, or neuter subject. The most natural way to read this sentence in conext is to read they as referring to either a male or female human.

Also, they can refer to as unspecified or unknown person. This is one reason to explain the usage in your sentence:

Why do they not use her or its or his?

We do not know who "they" is or are, but we know it is somebody.

That same page above has the sentence you ask about as

  1. Every year the Netherlands sends 20,000 tulip bulbs to Canada to thank them for their aid in the Second World War.

Now, they and their could be gender-free pronouns that refer to the country of Canada. After all, Canada is the closest noun.

Traditionally, the feminine pronoun she was used to refer to countries, as well as to ships.

So, it is very possible that the writer was using the gender-free pronoun instead of she to refer to Canada. However, we can't get into their mind and find out.

Besides Canada, the pronoun they could be referring to Canada's government. But again, we can't be sure.

To say that they and their refer to the people of Canada is also only a guess. If I were going to refer to the people of Canada, I would specifically say so:

Every year the Netherlands sends 20,000 tulip bulbs to the people of Canada to thank them for their aid in the Second World War.

OR:

Every year the Netherlands sends 20,000 tulip bulbs to Canada to thank its/her people for their aid in the Second World War.

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